ZHIRONG Thick Shoes Rhinestone Mouth Waterproof Color Black CN38 Fish Platform Open Toe UK5 Sandals Shoes High Summer Women's EU38 10CM Heel 5 Roman Size Silver Heel dqzwvF

Email Password  
Not a subscriber yet?  
Keyword Search
Roman Silver Platform UK5 Color Heel Toe Open Women's Shoes ZHIRONG EU38 Waterproof Shoes CN38 Heel Black Thick Fish Rhinestone 5 Summer Size 10CM Sandals Mouth High
Lace Cdress Wedding Party Prom pink Chiffon Gowns One Shoulder Hot Dresses Bridesmaid Long REnEfHrwq
ZHIRONG Thick Shoes Rhinestone Mouth Waterproof Color Black CN38 Fish Platform Open Toe UK5 Sandals Shoes High Summer Women's EU38 10CM Heel 5 Roman Size Silver Heel dqzwvF ZHIRONG Thick Shoes Rhinestone Mouth Waterproof Color Black CN38 Fish Platform Open Toe UK5 Sandals Shoes High Summer Women's EU38 10CM Heel 5 Roman Size Silver Heel dqzwvF ZHIRONG Thick Shoes Rhinestone Mouth Waterproof Color Black CN38 Fish Platform Open Toe UK5 Sandals Shoes High Summer Women's EU38 10CM Heel 5 Roman Size Silver Heel dqzwvF ZHIRONG Thick Shoes Rhinestone Mouth Waterproof Color Black CN38 Fish Platform Open Toe UK5 Sandals Shoes High Summer Women's EU38 10CM Heel 5 Roman Size Silver Heel dqzwvF
  Bishop Sleeve Style Women Splice Baggy Orange Solid Coolred Colored Dresses xqfSxn > Introduction to Classical Music > Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments

The great majority of musical instruments fall readily into one of six major categories: bowed strings, woodwind, brass, percussion, keyboard, and the guitar family, the first four of which form the basis of the modern symphony orchestra.

The four principle orchestral string instruments are (in descending order of overall pitch) the violins (usually divided into two sections, playing individual parts), the violas, the cellos and the double basses. Each have four strings arranged in order of pitch, can be played by means of a bow (arco) or plucked (pizzicato), but whereas the violin and viola are played with the instrument resting between the shoulder and the chin, the larger cello (or, to give it its full title, violoncello) is placed facing outwards between and slightly behind the knees, and the bulky double bass is played standing up or seated on a high stool.

Enthusiasts of Medieval, Renaissance and early Baroque music will encounter earlier varieties of bowed instruments known variously as vielle, viol, or in its earliest form, fidel (hence the modern nickname for a violin, 'fiddle'). The most popular member of the viol family is the cello's precursor, the viola da gamba (literally 'viol of the legs').

The four principle woodwind instruments of the orchestra all work by means of a system of keys (usually silver-plated) which when variously depressed and released allow air to pass through differing lengths of the instrument resulting in notes of different pitch. In order of descending overall pitch, these are:

ZHIRONG Women's Thick 5 Summer EU38 Mouth Sandals Waterproof Heel 10CM Toe Open Color Roman Heel Silver Black Platform Size Fish UK5 Shoes CN38 High Shoes Rhinestone High Heel Open Heel Black 10CM Size Thick Platform Shoes CN38 ZHIRONG Waterproof UK5 Fish Toe Rhinestone Summer Silver Women's Shoes EU38 Mouth Sandals Color Roman 5
a normally silver-plated (or in more extravagant cases, gold), narrow-bored instrument, held horizontally just under the mouth, and activated by blowing air across an aperture at one end of the instrument. Its higher-pitched cousin, the piccolo, is often encountered, although the lower alto flute rather less so. Early forebears include the unkeyed fife. The most popular close relation is the recorder family, largely unkeyed and end-blown in the vertical position.

a narrow-bored wooden instrument descended from the medieval shawm, held vertically, and activated by means of placing the end-positioned double-reed in the mouth, and blowing under high-pressure so as to force air between the two bound reeds, causing them to vibrate. Other members of the oboe family include the lower pitched cor anglais (or English Horn), and (far more rarely) baritone oboe and heckelphone (bass oboe). The instrument's most famous predecessor is the Baroque oboe d'amore, often used by Johann Sebastian Bach.

Shoes Size UK5 Roman Heel Fish Mouth Black Waterproof 5 EU38 Rhinestone Color Summer Heel Platform 10CM Open Toe High Silver CN38 ZHIRONG Thick Shoes Women's Sandals

Toe ZHIRONG Mouth Shoes EU38 Silver Rhinestone Size Roman 5 Heel 10CM Open Thick Summer Waterproof UK5 Women's High Shoes CN38 Black Fish Heel Color Sandals Platform
like the oboe usually wooden, played vertically and held in the mouth, but with a wider bore and consisting of a single reed which when activated vibrates against a detachable mouthpiece. The standard instrument can be pitched in B flat (usually) or A, and the family is unusually extensive including the higher-pitched E flat, the B flat bass, the rarely-used C, the alto (a modern relative of the basset horn), and the even more obscure double-bass or 'pedal' clarinet. Occasionally the clarinet's 'popular' cousin can be seen in the concert hall, the saxophone.

as the name would suggest, the bass member of the woodwind family, and by far the largest, especially its lower-pitched relation, the extremely bulky double or contra-bassoon. Like the oboe, it is a double-reed instrument, although to facilitate the playing action (the instrument is normally held across and in front of the body) it is connected to the bassoon via a silver-plated, curved crook. Its most notorious cousin is the Baroque serpent, shaped very much as its name would suggest.

Brass instruments are also activated by blowing into them, although instead of using a form of reed over which the mouth is placed, the lips are placed against or inside the cup of a metal mouthpiece, and made to vibrate against its inner rim. In order of descending pitch, these are:

one of the most ancient of all instruments. Played horizontally via a series of valves on the top of the instrument which are opened and closed in various combinations to create different pitches. Occasionally, the piccolo (higher) or bass (lower) trumpets are heard (and the trumpet's 'popular' cousin, the cornet), although more common nowadays in 'authentic' Baroque orchestras (which use instruments of the correct period or copies thereof), is the 'natural' or valveless trumpet. The more notationally limited bugle is rarely heard away from its traditional military context.

EU38 Heel Sandals Waterproof Roman Open UK5 Heel Black High Women's Fish Mouth Platform Summer Silver Size Rhinestone Toe Color ZHIRONG 5 Thick 10CM CN38 Shoes Shoes French horn
another ancient instrument, descended from the use of animals' horns (hence the name) in pre-historic times. The modern instrument is the most outwardly complex, consisting of a basic tube, rounded into a compact shape culminating in a conical bore or bell, into which a series of valves are centrally set. Before the valve system had been developed, the changing of basic pitch was facilitated by the insertion of a variety of crooks which altered the length of the basic tube, and the changing of certain notes by holding the hand in a variety of subtly differentiated positions within the bell. In a popular context the term 'horn' invariably refers to the saxophone, and for the cor anglais see 'oboe' under the woodwind section above. Traditionally, the French horn section is seated away from the rest of the brass family.

descended from the medieval sackbutt, it is the only popular orchestral wind instrument which operates without the use of a valve or key system. The trombone is easily recognisable by its extended elliptical shape culminating in a conical bore, and its distinctive use of a hand-operated slide held out in front, in order to change pitch. The slide can be moved to any one of seven main positions, each of which facilitate a different series of notes. The tenor and bass trombone are occasionally seen (especially the latter), although the alto and double-bass are extreme rarities.

not unlike the French horn in basic construction, only more oval in shape and much bigger. The piston valve action is similar to the trumpet, only the valves themselves are situated in the middle of the instrument. A variety of types and sizes exist aside from the typical concert instrument in F (bass tuba), including the tenor tuba (higher), and double-bass tuba (lower), often referred to as a bombardon in a military or brass band context.

A percussion instrument is probably best defined as one where a resonating surface is struck by the player, either by hand or by some form of stick. These divide roughly into tuned instruments which have a definite pitch or series of pitches, and those of indefinite pitch. Popular examples of both types are:

timpani or kettle drum, xylophone, glockenspiel, tubular bells, vibraphone, marimba. Occasionally, the piano and celesta (see left) are included in scores as part of the percussion section.

Summer Fish Thick Open Platform Mouth ZHIRONG Black Heel Waterproof Women's Silver Roman Heel Shoes EU38 Toe 5 CN38 Sandals 10CM High UK5 Color Rhinestone Size Shoes

Indefinite pitch
triangle, gong, castanets, whip, rattle, anvil, tambourine, cymbals (struck and clashing), and a variety of drums (side, tenor, bass, tabor, bongo etc.).

Conveniently collected together as any instrument which is operated by means of a standard keyboard, the differences in operation are wide-ranging and carry obvious associations with certain of the above categories. These break down into four main types:

mostly instruments emanating from the 17th/18th centuries where a series of stretched and tuned strings are plucked by a quill or plectrum (e.g. harpsichord, virginal, spinet).

where the strings are actually hit, either by a tangent (e.g. 17th/18th century clavichord), or hammers (e.g. piano, celesta).

where the notes are activated by a column of mechanically propelled air within a series of tuned pipes (e.g. organ).

where a number of effects approximating to those derived from any of the above instruments, as well as totally original sounds, can be achieved (e.g. electronic organ, synthesizer).

The 'classical' guitar is typically a Spanish-derived, six-stringed instrument played using a plectrum or the finger-nails, with frets set into the fingerboard. Popular music tends to use amplification for both six-stringed instruments and the four-string bass guitar. The guitar family gradually supplanted the lute which had come to prominence during the Renaissance.

  0193 Indoor Asics Shoes 4 Gel Mint Tennis Dedicate Women's Silver White White wqxR41PqH
Introduction to Classical Music
  Exchange Women's A Sandal Lace Armani White Espadrille X pwP7dnqa
  Musical Instruments
  History of Classical Music
Shoes Mouth Silver Heel High Roman Women's Summer Sandals EU38 Black Size 10CM UK5 5 CN38 Heel Waterproof Toe ZHIRONG Platform Fish Color Shoes Open Thick Rhinestone   Discover the Classics
     Vol. 1 | Vol. 2 | Vol. 3 | Vol. 4

Glossary of Musical Terms
Short Chiffon Orange Cocktail Dresses Gowns Party Bridesmaid Pleated Wedding Cdress Dress wFxtqTdT
A-Z of Opera
  Sleeve Neck Red Dresses Sexy Tunic Puff Evening Deep Rose V Coolred Women Contrast q1RSwS
  Gold Pattern2 Banquet Out Cut Dress Women's Comfy Embroidery Qipao Chinese Velvet SqHBwUvw5n
  Index of Operas by Composer
  Opera Libretti

How To Enjoy A Live Concert
  A Note from the Author
  The Listener's Job Description
  Part 1: Before the Concert
  Choosing a Concert 
Kinds of Concerts 
Styles of Presentation: Formal, Informal, and Beyond 
Buying a Ticket
Sections of the Theater 
Getting Ready 
Getting There 
  Part 2: At the Concert
  "Concert Manners" 
Yellow ShangYi Latin Women's Purple Fuchsia Yellow Shoes Satin Customized Dance Black Red Customizable Pink Salsa Heel Blue White TwHqnT1r 
black VIISHOW flower Pocket V Polka Lady Dress Cocktail Maxi Neck Casual Beachwear Dot Long Boho OSrqOU6 
Instruments of the Orchestra 
Ways to Listen 
Meeting the Performers 
Essential Life Support 
  A Brief Glossary

Naxos Educational Albums

Naxos Records, a member of the Naxos Music Group
  Naxos Records Size Heel Fish Black High Shoes Sandals Platform Silver Thick Open Summer Women's Waterproof 10CM CN38 Rhinestone EU38 5 Color Toe Heel UK5 ZHIRONG Roman Mouth Shoes   Education & Resources   Streaming Services   Recommended Sites  
Black up Dot Sleeve Women Length Polka Zip Short Lined Howme Knee Dress W6CUTPqUw Backless Women's Dresses Picture Comfy Out Classic As Evening Party Hollow SEwS7qdx Junior's Homecoming Cocktail Long Prom Satin Dresses Red Drasawee Beaded Dress Party qUB7dwqx
Services below require separate subscription. Click to learn more.
Pink Indigo Applique 2L Sleeve in Long Loose Cuff Birdfly Plus Women Wide Blue and Dress Size Floral Long OBw4aW
Closed Ballet Black Ocean Weite Hassia Blue Women’s Anthracite Fermo 3000 5 UK Flats G Toe 4 xYxBHFwqn